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Table 2 ICU utilization parameters

From: Introducing an integrated intermediate care unit improves ICU utilization: a prospective intervention study

Parameters Pre-IMC period IMC period P-value
(No. and % of total ICU population) N = 548 N = 479  
1. Utilization of ICU    
ICU length of stay (mean, ±SD) 7.5 (14.5) 7.7 (12.4) 0.74**
IMC length of stay (mean, ±SD) - 3.4 (4.5)  
Mechanical ventilation (% days) 71.9% 90.6% < 0.001**
TISS-28 during ICU stay (mean, ±SD) 26.4 (8.7) 29 (9.5) < 0.001**
TISS-28 on discharge day (mean, ±SD) 23.9 (9.2) 26.0 (10.1) < 0.001**
TISS-28 on discharge day < 20 37.1% 28.1% 0.002**
2. Inappropriate bed use    
Inappropriate ICU use    
a. Active-Non active treatment    
Patients 69 (11.9%) 7 (1.3%) < 0.01*
Days 265 (3.2%) 19 (0.01%)  
b. TISS-28 < 20    
Days 764 (18.7%) 357 (9.7%) <0.01*
Inappropriate cardiac ICU use    
Patients 27 (4.9%) 17 (1.3%) 0.25*
Days 107 (2.5%) 50 (1.4%)  
Inappropriate PACU use    
Patients 19 (3.2%) 8 (1.5%) 0.02*
IMC patients in general ward    
Patients 123 (21.1%) 64 (12.2%) < 0.01*
Days 267 (6.1%) 153 (4.3%)  
3. Accessibility of the ICU refused ICU admissions    
Total number of patients 110 (20%) 77 (16%) 0.13*
Of whom real ICU indication 58 (10.6%) 37 (7.7%) 0.12*
4. Clinical outcome readmissions (total)    
  31 (5.2%) 38 (7.9%) 0.15*
Readmissions from general ward 31 (5.2%) 24 (4.6%) 0.56*
Of which readmission <48 h. 7 (1.2%) 3 (0.6%) 0.27*
Readmission from IMC - 14 (2.7%) -
Mortality at ICU 91 (16,6%) 108 (22.5%) 0.02*
Mortality on general ward 24 (4.4%) 20 (4.2%) 0.80*
  1. *chi-square tests; **Mann–Whitney tests.