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Table 7 Factors associated with post-operative length of two weeks or less following pancreaticoduodenectomy

From: The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple’s procedure)

  Discharge before 2 weeks Discharge after 2 weeks Univariate Multivariate
Odds ratio (Confidence interval) p value Odds ratio (Confidence interval) p value
(n = 62) (n = 88)    
Demographics       
Male 41 (66%) 48 (55%) 1.6 (0.8–3.2) 0.155   
Diabetes 16 (26%) 19 (22%) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 0.548   
COPD 2 (3%) 10 (11%) 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 0.124   
Age ≥ 70 20 (32%) 38 (43%) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.176   
BMI ≥ 25 29 (50%) 42 (62%) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.184   
Albumin ≤ 30 g/l 12 (21%) 16 (28%) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.414   
Creatinine ≥100 (μmol/l) 6 (10%) 17 (21%) 0.4 (0.2–1.2) 0.088 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 0.085
Operative details       
Time ≥ 8 hours 24 (39%) 25 (28%) 1.6 (0.8–3.1) 0.185   
Blood loss ≥ 600 ml 9 (15%) 20 (23%) 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 0.202   
Intraoperative fluid balance ≤ 3 litre 20 (32%) 13 (15%) 2.7 (1.2–6.1) 0.01* 1.7 (0.5–5.1) 0.382
High surgical volume 39 (63%) 13 (25%) 9.8 (4.5–21.4) <0.001* 11.3 (3.8–33.8.) <0.001*
Malignancy 49 (79%) 76 (86%) 0.6 (0.3–1.4) 0.235   
Post–operative details       
Complication 15 (24%) 71 (80%) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) <0.001* 0.1 (0.1–0.4) <0.001*
Day 1 fluid balance ≤ 1 litre 35 (57%) 27 (31%) 2.9 (1.5–5.8) 0.002* 2.9 (1.1–6.6) 0.037*
Day 2 fluid balance ≤ 0.2 litre 33 (53%) 37 (31%) 2.6 (1.3–5.0) 0.006* 0.8 (0.3–2.5) 0.752
Day 3 fluid balance ≤ 0.2 litre 36 (58%) 32 (36%) 2.4 (1.2–4.7) 0.009* 2.5 (1.0–6.6) 0.056
  1. Data are presented as number (%) or median (range).
  2. COPD – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMI – body mass index; Missing: BMI – 24, Albumin -35, Creatinine 10, Estimate blood loss - 3 *p ≤ 0.05; Chi-Square/Fisher’s exact test.