Skip to main content

Table 6 Factors associated with overall complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy

From: The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple’s procedure)

  Complications No complications Univariate Multivariate
(n = 86) (n = 64) Odds ratio (Confidence interval) p value Odds ratio (Confidence interval) p value
Demographics       
BMI ≥ 25 43 (62%) 28 (49%) 1.7 (0.8–3.5) 0.137   
Albumin ≤ 30 g/l 19 (34%) 9 (15%) 2.9 (1.2–7.40 0.020* 1.6 (0.6–4.6) 0.389
Creatinine >100 (μmol/l) 17 (22%) 6 (10%) 2.6 (1.0–7.1) 0.055 3.9 (1.1–13.4) 0.033*
Operative details       
Time ≥ 8 hours 24 (28%) 25 (39%) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.150   
Blood loss ≥ 600 ml 15 (18%) 14 (22%) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.510   
Intraoperative fluid balance ≤ 3 litre 29 (34%) 32 (50%) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.006* 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.367
High surgical volume 12 (14%) 21 (33%) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) <0.001* 0.2 (0.1–0.5) 0.001*
Post–operative details       
Day 1 fluid balance ≤ 1 litre 26 (30%) 36 (56%) 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.001* 0.2 (0.1–0.6) 0.001*
Day 2 fluid balance ≤ 0.2 litre 28 (33%) 32 (50%) 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.031* 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.685
Day 3 fluid balance ≤ 0.2 litre 36 (42%) 32 (50%) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.32   
  1. Data are presented as number (%) or median (range).
  2. BMI – body mass index; Missing: BMI – 24, Albumin -35, Creatinine 10, Estimate blood loss - 3 *p ≤ 0.05; Chi-Square/Fisher’s exact test.