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Table 4 Operative and pathology of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenal resection with and without complications

From: The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple’s procedure)

  Overall Complications No complications p value
(n = 150) (n = 86) (n = 64)
Malignancy 125 (83%) 74 (86%) 51 (80%) 0.301
Epidural anesthesia 84 (57%) 45 (53%) 39 (62%) 0.276
Intrathecal morphine 20 (13%) 8 (9%) 12 (19%) 0.092
Pylorus preserving 63 (42%) 40 (47%) 23 (36%) 0.194
Surgeons with higher surgical volumes*     0.001*
   Surgeon 1 52 (35%) 17 (20%) 35 (55%)  
   Surgeon 2 29 (19%) 19 (22%) 10 (16%)  
   Surgeon 3 13 (9%) 8 (9%) 5 (8%)  
   Surgeon 4 9 (6%) 6 (7%) 3 (5%)  
   Surgeon 5 20 (13%) 15 (17%) 5 (8%)  
Other 27 (18%) 21 (24%) 6 (9%)  
Estimated blood loss (ml) 350 (100–2500) 350 (100–1900) 400 (200–2500) 0.027*
Blood transfusions intraoperative 28 (19%) 16 (19%) 12 (19%) 0.982
Intraoperative fluids (l) 5.0 (1.0–12.3) 5.4 (2.5–12.3) 5.0 (1.0–10.6) 0.047*
Fluid balance (l) 4.5 (0.2–12.0) 4.7 (1.6–12.0) 4.1 (0.2–9.4) 0.044*
Inotropes and vasoconstrictors     0.89
Total use 90 (60%) 55 (64%) 35 (55%)
Norepinephrine 8 (5%) 5 (6%) 3 (5%)
Metaraminol 70 (47%) 39 (45%) 31 (48%)
Ephedrine 15 (10%) 9 (10%) 8 (13%)
Dopamine 5 (3%) 3 (3%) 2 (3%)
Operative time (hours) 7.0 (3–15.8) 6.6 (3–15.8) 7.2 (3–12) 0.056
  1. *Defined as greater than 10 pancreatic resections per annum.