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Table 1 Summary of number of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with complications

From: The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple’s procedure)

Total patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy 150
Patients with complications 86(57%)
Clavien classification i 5(3%)
         ii 41(27%)
         iii 25(17%)
         iv 11(7%)
         v 3(2%)
Post operative pancreatic fistulaa 13(9%)
   Grade A -
   Grade B 4(3%)
   Grade C 9(6%)
Bile leakb 6(4%)
Acute pancreatitisc 8(5%)
Delayed gastric emptyingd 25(17%)
Postoperative bleedinge 3(2%)
Sepsisf 33(22%)
Pulmonary edemag 9(6%)
Myocardial infarctionh 12(8%)
Cardiac arrythmiasi 19(13)
Respiratory failurej 12(8%)
Pulmonary congestionk 15(10%)
Pneumonial 26(17%)
Renal failurem 11(7%)
Urinary tract infectionn 4(3%)
Postoperative deleriumo 6(4%)
Patient outcomes  
Return to theatre 11(7%)
Unexpected return to intensive care unit 8(5%)
Medical emergency/response call 15(10%)
Death within 30 days 3(2%)
  1. Data presented as number (%).
  2. aInternational Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF).
  3. bPresence of bile in the drainage fluid that persisted on postoperative day 4.
  4. cElevations in serum lipase > 3× normal laboratory reference range.
  5. dInternational Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF).
  6. ePostoperative blood loss requiring a blood transfusion.
  7. fSurviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines definition.
  8. gRadiological features of acute pulmonary edema requiring medical intervention.
  9. hECG changes with myocardial enzyme elevation.
  10. iNew onset atrial fibrillation or ventricular arrhythmia requiring medical treatment or cardioversion.
  11. jProlonged ventilation or reintubation or PaO2 ≤ 50 mmHg or PaCO2 ≥ 50 mmHg (room air).
  12. kShortness of breath with crepitations and desaturation requiring medical intervention.
  13. lElevated temperature with radiographic pulmonary changes.
  14. mRise in serum creatinine (absolute increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dl (≥ 26.4 μmol/l) or percentage increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 50%) or oliguria (urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/h for more than 6 hours).
  15. nPositive urine culture for pathogens requiring antibiotics.
  16. oImpaired cognition, fluctuating level of consciousness with altered psychomotor activity not related to emergence from anesthesia or an identifiable etiology.