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Table 3 Clinical characteristics at admission according to the LCA classification in clusters

From: A latent class approach for sepsis diagnosis supports use of procalcitonin in the emergency room for diagnosis of severe sepsis

Clinical Cluster 2 Cluster 1 Missing P* value
characteristics n = 532 n = 187 n = 46
Age 51 (33–68, 532) 54 (37–70, 187) 39 (23–62, 46) 0.067
SOFA score 2 (1–3, 532) 4 (3–6, 187) 2 (1–3, 46) 0.001
APACHE II score 8 (5–13, 532) 13 (9–17,187) 8 (3–11, 46) 0.001
Temperature (°C) 37 (36.5-37.2, 489) 37 (36.7-38, 173) 37 (36.5-38, 43) 0.061
Heart rate 92 (80–108, 520) 100 (88–117, 182) 96 (81–114, 43) 0.001
Respiratory rate 20 (18–28, 90) 24 (20–29, 61) 26.5 (20–38.5, 12) 0.048
MAP 79 (68–90, 495) 72.5 (61–83, 180) 70.5 (60–77, 42) 0.001
WBC (cells/mm3) 11200 (8200–15100, 527) 13250 (9300–19300, 186) 13100 (9300–16700, 46) 0.005
Creatinin (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.8-1.3, 529) 1.4 (0.9-2.6, 185) 0.9 (0.7-1.6, 42) 0.001
Platelets (cells/mm3) 296000 237000 297000 0.001
(223000–391000, 525) (147000–301000, 183) (186000–404000, 46)
PaFi 324 (240–384, 515) 292 (190–355, 182) 332 (220–392, 41) 0.001
Lactic Acid (mmo/L) 1.6 (1.1-2.5, 518) 2.0 (1.3-3.1, 184) 1.8 (1.6-2.8, 41) 0.001
Suspected source of infection     0.001
Respiratory 129 (24%) 41 (22%) 9 (19%)  
Urinary tract 76 (14%) 44 (23%) 7 (15%)  
Skin and soft tissues 147 (28%) 20 (11%) 9 (19%)  
Intra-abdominal 60 (11%) 27 (14%) 6 (13%)  
Undetermined 47 (9%) 37 (20%) 10 (22%)  
Others 73 (14%) 18 (10%) 5 (11%)  
No comorbidity 237 (44%) 73 (39%) 28 (61%) 0.027
Diabetes 108 (20%) 33 (18%) 5 (11%) 0.250
COPD 69 (13%) 21 (11%) 4 (9%) 0.614
CRF 54 (10%) 32 (17%) 2 (4%) 0.011
28-day mortality rate 50 (9) 32 (17) 9 (19) 0.005
Blood culture requested 293 (55) 146 (78) 28 (61) 0.001
Positive blood culture 34 (12) 57 (39) 7 (25) 0.001
Procalcitonin (ng/ml) 0.21 (0.05 – 0.64) 15.07 (6.78 – 31.96) 0.64 (0.08 – 3.63) 0.0001
C reactive protein (mg/dl) 7 (2.3 – 15.65) 18.8 (8.3 – 25.9) 13.3 (8.3 – 21.7) 0.0001
D- dimer (ng/ml) 1406 (893 – 2329) 2883 (1386 – 5018) 1700 (1279 – 2398) 0.0001
  1. The values are expressed as median (IQR, observations available) or number (percentage).
  2. Missing = patients without information in any of PCT, CRP or DD; Cluster 1 = patients identified by LCA as a sepsis-like syndrome; Cluster 2 = the remaining of the study population; MAP, Mean Arterial Pressure; WBC, White Blood Cells; PaFi, PaO2/FiO2; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRF, Chronic renal failure.
  3. *Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables and Chi-square for proportions.