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Table 1 Clinical characteristics at admission according to the groups defined by the expert consensus

From: A latent class approach for sepsis diagnosis supports use of procalcitonin in the emergency room for diagnosis of severe sepsis

Clinical Sepsis Infected without sepsis No infected P* value
characteristics n = 505 n = 112 n = 148  
SOFA score 3 (2–4, 505) 1.5 (1–2, 112) 2 (1–4, 148) 0.001
APACHE II score 10 (6–16, 505) 6 (2–10, 112) 9 (5–14, 148) 0.001
Temperature (°C) 37 (36.5 - 38, 472) 36.9 (36.5 - 37, 102) 37 (36.5 - 37, 131) 0.064
Heart rate 100 (87–115, 493) 83.5 (74–90, 106) 90 (79–108, 146) 0.001
Respiratory rate 22 (20–28, 121) 18 (16–20, 15) 24 (20–36, 27) 0.001
MAP 104 (91–120, 493) 113 (103–126, 106) 108 (95–130, 146) 0.001
WBC (cells/mm3) 12900 (8900–17900, 500) 9450 (7500–11400, 112) 10400 (8000–13100, 147) 0.001
Neutrophils (%) 82 (74–89, 500) 71 (60–81, 111) 77 (66–86, 147) 0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 12 (11–14, 500) 12 (11–14, 111) 13 (11–15, 147) 0.069
Creatinin (mg/dl) 1 (0.8 – 1.9, 500) 0.9 (0.8 – 1.3, 110) 0.9 (0.8 – 1.5, 146) 0.035
Lactic Acid (mmol/L) 1.9 (1.2 – 2.9, 494) 1.4 (1.0 – 1.8, 106) 1.7 (1.1 – 2.6, 143) 0.001
Bilirrubin (mg/dl) 0.7 (0.5 – 1.1, 494) 0.6 (0.4 – 0.8, 110) 0.7 (0.4 – 1.1, 142) 0.059
PaO2/FiO2 304.5 (212–364, 492) 366 (315–407, 104) 307.5 (238 – 387, 142) 0.001
Suspected source of infection     0.001
Respiratory 120 (24%) 16 (14%) 43 (29%)  
Urinary tract 93 (18%) 21 (19%) 13 (9%)  
Skin and soft tissues 115 (23%) 46 (41%) 15 (10%)  
Intra-abdominal 54 (11%) 15 (13%) 24 (16%)  
Undetermined 66 (13%) 3 (3%) 25 (17%)  
Others 57 (11%) 11 (10%) 28 (19%)  
No comorbidity 220 (43%) 55 (49%) 63 (42%) 0.513
Diabetes 98 (19%) 21 (19%) 27 (18%) 0.947
COPD 63 (12%) 4 (3%) 27 (18%) 0.002
CRF 54 (11%) 17 (15%) 17 (11%) 0.404
28-day mortality rate 68 (13.5%) 4 (3.6%) 19 (13%) 0.012
  1. The values are expressed as median (IQR, Observations available) or number (percentage). MAP, Mean Arterial Pressure, WBC, White Blood Cells, COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRF, Chronic renal failure.
  2. *Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables and Chi-square for proportions.