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Table 1 The Douleur Aigüe du Nouveau-né (DAN) scale[10, 20]

From: Breastfeeding and pain relief in full-term neonates during immunization injections: a clinical randomized trial

Pain estimation Score
Facial expressions  
Calm 0
Snivels and alternates gentle eye opening and closing 1
Intensity of eye squeeze, brow bulge, nasolabial furrow:  
- Mild, intermittent with return to calm* 2
- Moderate† 3
- Very pronounced, continuous‡ 4
Limb movements  
Calm or gentle movements 0
Intensity of pedalling, toes spread, legs tensed and pulled up, agitation of arms, withdrawal reaction:  
- Mild, intermittent with return to calm* 1
- Moderate† 2
- Very pronounced, continuous‡ 3
Vocal expression  
No complaints 0
Moans briefly (for intubated child, looks anxious or uneasy) 1
Intermittent crying (for intubated child, expression of intermittent crying) 2
Long lasting crying, continuous howl (for intubated child, expression of continuous crying) 3
  1. * Present during <1/3 of observation periods.
  2. † Present during 1/3 to 2/3 of observation periods.
  3. ‡ Present during >2/3 of observation periods.