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Table 2 Percentage of medical and unplanned surgical patients who had their ability to perform activities of daily life affected after ICU admission according to the Karnofsky and Lawton-instrumental activities of daily living scales

From: Factors influencing physical functional status in intensive care unit survivors two years after discharge

Variables n Functional impairment (%) p
Severe Moderate No change Improvement
Age (Karnofsky), years       <0.001
< 65 265 7 26 53 14a  
≥ 65 234 13a 24 61 2  
Age (Lawton)       <0.001
< 65 265 12 14 66a 8a  
≥ 65 234 20 a 23a 57 0  
Stay in ICU (Karnofsky)       <0.001
< 7 days 401 7 24 59a 10a  
8-14 days 52 23a 29 48 0  
≥ 15 days 46 23a 30 42 5  
Stay in ICU (Lawton)       
< 7 days 401 13 17 65a 5  
8-14 days 52 21 25 54 0  
≥ 15 days 46 35a 16 40 9  
BMIa (Karnofsky)       <0.001
< 25 Kg/m2 202 11 26 58 5  
≥ 25 Kg/m2 297 4 21 51 24a  
BMIa (Lawton)       <0.001
< 30 Kg/m2 202 17 18 63 2  
≥ 30 Kg/m2 297 10 18 55 17a  
Reason for ICU admission (Karnofsky)       <0.001
Heart 113 5 22 69a 4  
Neurological 59 39a 34 27 0  
Respiratory 60 8 23 69a 0  
Trauma 18 22 45a 33 0  
Planned surgery 199 3 21 57 19a  
Other 50 12 30 54 4  
Reason for ICU admission (Lawton)       <0.001
Heart 113 11 13 73a 3  
Neurological 59 51a 30a 17 2  
Respiratory 60 8 20 70 2  
Trauma 18 33 17 50 0  
Planned surgery 199 8 18 66 8a  
Other 50 20 14 62 4  
Days on MV (Karnofsky)       <0.001
Did not use MV 352 9 27a 55 9  
1 day 78 5 17 67 11  
2 to 7 days 37 13 16 68 3  
≥ 8 days 32 31a 25 44 0  
Days on MV (Lawton)       0.021
Did not use MV 352 15 19 61 5  
1 day 78 10 12 73a 5  
2 to 7 days 37 19 13 65 3  
≥ 8 days 32 33 a 26 38 3  
APACHE II at 1st ICU day 499 14 ± 6§ 12 ± 6.5§* 13 ± 8§ 8 ± 5* 0.02 *
SOFA at 1st ICU day 499 (0 0:2)§ (0 0:1)§* (0 0:0)* (0 0:0)* 0.003 b
Subjective impression (Karnofsky)       <0.001
Equal 172 1 17 78a 4  
Worse 156 30a 53a 17 0  
Better 171 0 7 72a 21a  
Subjective impression (Lawton)       <0.001
Equal 172 4 14 82a 0  
Worse 156 46a 30a 24 0  
Better 171 1 11 75a 12a  
  1. a Adjusted residuals > 1.96;
  2. b p value according to Kruskal-Wallis;
  3. §, * Equal symbols indicate absence of statistically significant difference according to Tukey test.
  4. APACHE II Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation, BMI Body Mass Index, ICU Intensive Care Unit, MV Mechanical ventilation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.